Druga fala reform emerytalnych w świetle zmodyfikowanej wielofilarowej koncepcji Banku Światowego
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As a result of unfavorable demographical changes many countries introduced pension reforms aiming at assuring a balance between pension incomes and pension expenses as well as maintaining financial stability by the use of a defined premium and elements of capital financing. Chile was the first country to introduce capital system in 1981. Many countries of Latin America and several countries of central and eastern Europe followed this example. Additionally, many of them implemented other reforms (introducing multi–pillar pension system based on repatriation of capital, including three–pillar systems recommended by the World Bank). The first wave of reforms brought anticipated results: long–term balance in public pension finances, an increase in system equivalence and reduction of benefits as well as limitations in redistribution directed to lower income groups. After noticing defectiveness in the functioning of pension systems based only on gathering pension savings using solely the financial markets, many countries of Latin America verified regulations of the capital systems involving a definite premium, in particular elementary pension guarantees. The need for changes was noticed also by the World Bank that, in 2005, made a proposal of a new, modified conception of multi–pillar pension system based on diversification of methods of financing and pension services providers. The second wave of reforms is characterized by resignation from the defined premium formula as well as capital management and increasing the State’s participation in the pension system by introducing and increasing a repatriation part and enlarging the scope of compensation for the lowest income groups. At the moment, functioning of the pension funds undergoes careful evaluation, together with a verification of pension capital management. Upcoming changes are said to reduce the height of payment, introduce much wider diversification and increase supervision over functioning of capital components of elementary pension guarantees.